Monday, July 6, 2020
American astronomer, Donald Goldsmith, was born on February 24, 1943. He studied astronomy at the University of California at Berkeley and earned his PH. D. in 1969. Over the course of his life, Goldsmith has written over twenty books related to science and astronomy, one of his more popular ones being Einsteins Greatest Blunder. Donald Goldsmith is a respected astronomer and author, and has received the American Institute of Physics Science Communication Award and the Annenberg Lifetime Award for astronomy popularization from the American Astronomical Society. In this book, Donald Goldsmith strives to point out the biggest questions in cosmology today, and discusses why astronomers are having difficulties solving these inquiries. He also introduces possible solutions to these problems based on new information from the latest astronomical satellites. Goldsmith takes the first half of the book to explain how astronomy has developed over the past 500 plus years in a way that anyone, including non-scientists, can understand. He then dives into the current problems in this field of study faced by astronomers today. This is a very effective and interesting way of setting up this book as it allows the reader to utilize the information learned in the beginning of the book to make inferences about possible solutions to current issues in cosmology. The topics covered in this book range from topics as small as the discovery of new particles, to as large as the discovery of black holes and dark matter. It is very interesting to see how every new disco very builds off one another, and how many different branches of science are required to come together to figure out the greatest puzzle of all the universe. This book directly relates to the Physics 10240 course because it discusses a timeline of the biggest cosmological discoveries in past years, while also describing the methods and principles that cosmologists had to utilize in order to form these theories about the universe. Ideas, including the Doppler Effect, the curvature of space, and Einsteins theory of general relativity, that we learned about in class from Kip Thornes book, Black Holes and Time Warps, were also explained in this book, but at a more basic level. The book, Einsteins Greatest Blunder, is subtly, yet strategically, split up into two parts. The first eight chapters discuss information about cosmology and the universe that is known as facts, or is at least widely accepted as fact. It includes information about the wavelengths and frequencies of light, the process by which stars shine, how to detect the ages of stars, the location of galaxies in the universe, and more. He uses proven equations and laws, such as Newtons Laws of Motion and Einsteins famous energy of mass formula, to support the reliability of the information he is providing. The first two chapters of this book introduce some of the main questions asked by cosmologists today, like will the universe always continue to expand, or will it eventually contract, and what type of matter makes up most of the universe? Then, Goldsmith begins describing fundamental knowledge about gravity, light, and motion that is required to later understand more complex theories about the m ysteries of the universe. He refers to Newtons universal law of gravitation, Newtons laws of motion, and Newton and Einsteins astrophysics work, along with studies of spectroscopy (the study of different colors of light) to explain the facts of these topics. Right in the beginning, Goldsmith also defines what Einsteins greatest blunder was the cosmological constant. This term that Einstein introduced was used in his mathematical models so a universe without expansion or contraction could exist (7). Once Hubble later discovered that the universe is currently expanding, Einstein regarded this constant as his greatest blunder, however, some scientists still use a non-zero cosmological constant in Einsteins original equations in order to keep their theories in agreement with observations (8). Chapters three and four begin to get into characteristics of stars and the formation of galaxies. Goldsmith explains that nuclear-fusion (the melding of two atomic nuclei to form a new nucleus) at a stars extremely hot center is the process that allows for stars to shine. He also described that differences in the mass of a star dictate the stars characteristics after it stops burning. The lightest stars eventually become white-dwarfs, while heavier stars may become a neutron star or a black hole. These differing types of stars have been observed in the universe as telescopes have become more advanced over the years. Galaxies, or clusters of stars, were first discovered by Galileos telescope, but the differing types of galaxies were discovered centuries later. The general idea in this part of the book is that more concentrated groups of stars are called global clusters, whereas open clusters represent much smaller groups of stars. In addition, nebulae, and more specifically spiral neb ulae, describe the shapes of galaxies like the Milky Way, and were discovered through telescopes by astronomers like Charles Messier and Edwin Hubble. These varying arrangements of galaxies in the universe is something currently being investigated by astronomers today, which leads to the next topic discussed in the book Universal Expansion. The next several chapters contain information known about the current expansion of the universe, and current questions about the ultimate fate of the universe. Starting from the beginning, the Big Bang is the moment when the universe came into existence. It began with many particles, including protons, neutrons, electrons, and photons, which eventually became the ever-growing universe we know (for the most part) today. In order to answer the major question of whether the universe will always continue expanding, or if it will eventually begin to contract on itself, scientists would need to find the average actual density of matter in the universe to compare to the critical density, and would need a better understanding of Hubbles Constant (the unit of measurement used to describe the universes expansion). This leads cosmologists to the second big question of what matter actually makes up the universe. Goldsmith mentions the huge mystery of dark matter, and the issue of actually being able to discover and study it due to its lack of electromagnetic radiation and visible light. Finally, he wraps up the book by predicting that as scientists develop better telescopes and infrared detectors, as long as gain knowledge about Hubbles Constant and the kinds of dark matter still undiscovered, we may have a much better understanding of how galaxies formed, and what the fate of the universe is. In conclusion, this book was a good read because it was very informative and easy to understand. It included pictures taken with the Hubble Space Telescope, and many diagrams the help explain the main concepts described. These visuals, along with the simplified, straightforward diction made the book a good read for even those who have no prior knowledge in the subject of cosmology. For that reason, I would say this book is not targeted necessarily toward a specific age group, but more towards anyone with an interest in cosmology and little to no prior understanding of the universe and all of its contents. The last four chapters of the book were the best, in my opinion, because they discussed the questions cosmologists have today, and the progress, if any, that is being made in these areas. More specifically, chapters eleven and twelve talk about missing matter, and how most of the universe is made up of dark matter, which cannot be seen by way of visible light nor through electromagn etic radiation. The only way astronomers actually know that dark matter not only exists, but in fact makes up at least 5 to 10, maybe even 50 times more matter than matter that is familiar to scientists, is through how it affects gravity. Dark matter is still one of the biggest cosmological issues in discussion today, and at the time this book was published, governments in the United States and Europe had a number of dark matter searches being funded in places like California, Russia, and Italy. My least favorite chapter was probably chapter eight, The Exclusive Age of the Cosmos, because estimates of the age of the universe are based on a number of fudge factors as Goldsmith likes to call them, which are theories not proven to be true, but that models are based off of and are only valid if these factors are correct. One of the main questionable factors mentioned in this chapter is Hubbles Constant. It has been found that 1/H (H being Hubbles Constant) is the amount of time that has passed since the Big Bang, but scientists have yet to figure out what this age is. Estimates of the age of the universe range from roughly 6 billion years all the way to 13 billion years, which is such a large range that the actual age of the universe is, in my opinion, still a huge unanswered question. Overall, I would recommend that Einsteins Greatest Blunder stays on the reading list as it is very informational, and gives a simplistic, clear explanation of many of the cosmological concepts rel ating to content discussed in this course. In addition, it introduces many of the biggest questions about the universe that are still unanswered today.
Tuesday, June 30, 2020
Juvenile Delinquency Prevention and Treatment Research Paper (Research Paper Sample) Content: Juvenile Delinquency Prevention and TreatmentNameInstitutionJuvenile Delinquency Prevention and TreatmentOne of the things that have been witnessed lately is the fact that many young children disregard the authority of elders and do not accord them the much-needed respect while interacting with them. Some of these children often harass and bully weaker children under the pretense of normal. The teenagers also engage in wrongful acts regardless of the authority of their teachers or parents. Most of them cause havoc to their neighborhoods and do not consider other people when undertaking any actions. One of the scenes that can be recalled in 2010 is where one student referred to as Phoebe Prince decided to hang herself after she had enough bullying while in school (Sigel Welsh, 2012). With as much as the perpetrators who pushed Phoebe were apprehended by the relevant authorities that did not bring back the young life that was prematurely cut short. Unfortunately, bully ing is a common occurrence in most schools and the various stakeholders are not doing enough to avert it. The prevalence of this vice in our institutions of learning goes contrary to some of the inherent values of the schools which are to shape a young person to become a better person in the society and not a criminal. The government nonetheless has taken note of some of the vices that are being manifested by the young people and in a bid to curtail them; it has put up juvenile prevention and treatment programs. The sole purpose of these programs is to mitigate the number of teenagers who end up being delinquents in their adult life.Prevention of delinquents is intended to ameliorate the lives of the juveniles whereas the goal of treatment is to deter the prevalence of criminals in the future. For the purpose of this paper, the youths refer to anyone who is below the age of 18 years. Delinquency nowadays is regardless of the gender due to the fact that the males and females alike pe rpetuate the vice. Treatment and the prevention are equally important and intertwined due to the fact that they both intend to mitigate the level of crimes among juveniles. This paper seeks to highlight the comparison and draw some contrasts between juvenile delinquency treatment and prevention. In doing so, the underlying principles and examples that describe the two processes will be adduced. The paper will also describe why the differences and similarities of both concepts are vital in any juvenile justice system.Juvenile Delinquency PreventionOne of the main reasons why juvenile delinquency programs are put in place is to ensure that the young people within the society are persuaded to refrain from engaging in vices that will taint their image within the society. Prevention of juvenile delinquency is necessary in order to ensure that the youths become more productive individuals within the society. Juvenile crimes often stagnate the economic growth of a given country and usually affect the vast majority of the population. The juvenile prevention programs that have been put in place tend to improve the general welfare of a delinquent at the same time is to mitigate the number of young people who are likely to become criminals in their adult lives. There are various ways in which juvenile delinquency can be prevented within a given society. These include pre-schooling, home visitation, job training, mentoring and child skill training (Siegel Welsh, 2012). The youths also need to be encouraged to undertake productive leisure activities in order to make use of their free time and finally, there should be interactive sessions either between the youths and their parents or any other adult who is able to guide them (Siegel Welsh, 2012). This will ensure that the young people feel a sense of belonging and will be really occupied to think about committing crimes. Often the delinquent crimes occur due to idleness and having the wrong company of friends. These prev entive activities tend not to subject the juvenile, who has some criminal tendencies, to some punitive actions but serves to accord them with appropriate methods of deterring from the criminal behavior (Gorgen et al, 2013). The activities further promote the manifestation of the fundamental rights of the young people and ensure that they are given the much-needed attention.The fundamental principles of prevention and examplesThe basic principles of juvenile delinquency prevention are to rehabilitate the life of a young person and also to mitigate the preponderance of crime among the youths. America, for example, has a number of cases of adolescent boys and girls who engage in violent crimes such as rape, manslaughter, murder, arson or assault. This prevalence of such crimes has led to the formation of The Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (OJJDP) (Miller, Hess Orthmann, 2011). This office provides the framework for the implementation of preventive methods of det erring crime among the juveniles. After thorough research, the OJJDP came to the conclusion that juveniles who had guardians or parents who supervised them at school were unlikely to engage in violent crimes compared to their counterparts who either did not have guardians or their guardians did not involve themselves in their affairs. Some of the programs that the office held in a bid to prevent violent crimes among the youth include the Chicago Area Project. It was tailored to enhance the change in the behavior of the youths that were exposed to gang activity and delinquency (Siegel Welsh, 2011).The project was designed to ensure that youths in the area were able to interact in constructive ways in order to derogate the gang affiliation that was prevalent in Chicago. Cambridge-Somerville Youth was another preventive program that was set out in Massachusetts with a vision of not only influencing the locals within the state but to have a global impact. This program was premised on s ome randomized controlled tests which were designed to improve the life of individuals would be beneficial to personalities and the community as a whole (Siegel Welsh, 2011).An Analysis of the Effectiveness of the PreventionIn order to discern the effectiveness of the prevention programs, one needs to look at the ramifications of the programs. Thus, the results of the prevention strategies would prove the effectiveness of the prevention. Some of the programs that are created to prevent juvenile delinquency are still on some question of whether they are had a positive influence on the youth or not. Various experts hold divergent views on the effectiveness of the programs. Some believe that they yield positive results whereas the rest believe that the programs had no effect on deterring delinquent behavior among the youth. For instance, Scared Straight is a program mainly to scare the juveniles while taking them to visit high-security penitentiaries to walk around and see individuals serving life sentences. However, research indicates that it is not effective; rather worsen the behavior of the youth. Inversely, Public Health Approach and Developmental view are the preventive approaches that better for the children. Public health approach is to prevent diseases and injuries. It focuses on improving the overall well-being of the young ones like getting access to health care services and general prevention education. It also focuses on the young children who are potentially at risk for becoming offenders and to reducing repeat criminal or recidivism. Thus, developmental perspective allows assessing the success of programs at different life-course stages; that is childhood and adolescent. That is, if parents and family member supported child training, it would reduce the cause of juvenile delinquency because parents play a very significant role in the upbringing of children. It is the first training institution that helps to build children experience. The family in stitution has a greater impact on the character of every child than any other institute. This account for the reason it is expected to be a perfect institution, an institution to imbibe moral in the children in order that they can face both their present and future challenges. In sum, one could not specify the most effective way to prevent the juvenile from delinquents.Juvenile Delinquency TreatmentJuvenile delinquency treatment is an approach to deal with a juvenile who shown persistent destructive behavior and, or who commit serious and violent offenses in their early childhood. These offenses include a number of adult crimes such as assault, murder, rape, manslaughter and robbery with violence. Therefore, a juvenile involved in any of aforementioned crimes would be placed in correctional treatments. Thus, correctional treatments for the juveniles are subdivided into two groups: the institutional and the communal treatment (Siegel Welsh, 2011). Institutional treatment is where a juvenile is taken to a facility where they can be corrected. Most often these facilities are managed by the government. The communal treatment, on the other hand, is where the family members and other close members of the society provide a juvenile with the much-needed support, treatment, and protection (Siegel Welsh, 2011). The seriousness of the crime will determine the treatment imposed on a juvenile offender. Take for example; treatment within the community that only makes use of the available resources within the society. This treatment method utilizes unsecured premises that are not specially designed to accommodate juvenile delinquents. With as much as there are various setbacks, the treatment often manages to meet its objective since the adolescents are able to be counseled and subsequently treated.Siegel Welsh, (2011) stated that a juvenile is a person who is involved in the use of some substances and c...
Tuesday, May 19, 2020
Police Brutality: Minorities under attack On April 19, 2015 at approximately 7 a.m., Freddie Grey, a 25-year-old black man from Baltimore, Maryland died by mysterious causes. After being chased down and thrown into a police van by police officers, he was taken out of the van unresponsive and soon, Ã¢â¬Å"...lapsed into a coma, died, was resuscitated, stayed in a coma and on Monday, underwent extensive surgery at Shock Trauma to save his life (Ford, 2015). Michael Brown, Tamir Rice, and Eric Garner are other minority males that have become symbols of a raging national conversation about police brutality and racial injustice. These events have caused communityÃ¢â¬â¢s civil rights protests to unite under themes such as; Black Lives Matter, Hands Up Don t Shoot, No Justice No Peace, and Ã¢â¬Å"I CanÃ¢â¬â¢t Breathe.Ã¢â¬ Police brutality driven by racial profiling is evident in lower income and minority areas. This is apparent because of lack of minority police officers, racial pro filing in all ages, and the fear of the people in the community to step up to authority in the face of adversity. The topic of police brutality is very popular in the media today. According to CNNÃ¢â¬â¢s Eliott C. McLaughlin, Ã¢â¬Å"It feels like every week, a name is added to the list: another man, often black and unarmed, has died at the hands of police.Ã¢â¬ The Huffington Post even has a whole section of its website dedicated to police brutality. It includes a listing of all the recent events of police brutality, violenceShow MoreRelatedPolice Brutality : A Social Problem1548 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPolice brutality is a social problem faced in many communities around the world. Focusing on North America, the problems and central focuses on police brutality stem from racism and the excessive abuse of power. Police brutality is defined as unmerited, excessive and aggressive abuse, police brutality is a phenomenon that causes irreparable harm to its victims. The abuse may be physical or psychological, and the victims can feel the effects of this abuse for a lifetime. These effects include n otRead MoreThe And A Dark And Dark Skin859 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesJaywalking in a hoodie and a dark skin and you could provoke six bullets straight to the head especially if it is right next to a recently robbed convenience store in Missouri. That is what happened in Ferguson as a result of a gruesome episode of police brutality and injustice. Perhaps the only injustice in this world is the deceptive consciousness with which we convince ourselves that we are infallible. Perhaps it is the very imperfection that contorts every aspect of our lives. That is the irony ofRead MoreThe Problem Of Police Brutality1646 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages One of the biggest problems that plague America is police brutality. The job of the police is to protect the community theyÃ¢â¬â¢re assigned to work in, from any illegal activity that occurs. However, there are officers who believe they are above the law. Police brutality has been a political oppression that has been occurring more many years. ThereÃ¢â¬â¢s been many cases of excessive force towards innocent civilians by an officer that has sparked a national outrage. Stephan Lendman of Media with ConscienceRead MoreFreedom Of Speech : The Boston Tea Party Essay1375 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesrebellions. In 1792, which was only 5 years after the Bill of Rights was ratified, congress passed the Calling Forth Act. This law gave Ã¢â¬Å"the president the authority to unilaterally call up and command state militias to repel insurrections, fend off attacks from hostile American Indian tribes, and address other threats that presented themselves while Congress wasn t in sessionÃ¢â¬ (Rise of the Warrior Cop). The Boston Tea Party rebellion was against the taxes on tea and America won against EnglandRead MoreRacial Profiling And The American Civil Liberties Union1081 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages Police brutality has been in the headlines for years. Reports continually stream in, exhibiting the needless force displayed by police. However, the people donÃ¢â¬â¢t always have all the information. The media shows the aftereffects itself, not the reasons why the victim was targeted. Perhaps it was a justified arrest. Maybe it was simply because the target of the attack wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t white. Police are constantly put on trial for their crimes, but the community may never know the whole truth. The pain and miseryRead MoreRacial Profiling And The United States1465 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesfrom African Americans protesting that they are pulled over by police officers for no reason other than the color of their skin. But racial profiling isn t only about African-Americans, racial profiling deals with other ethnicity groups likewi se. Police departments across the country too often use extortionate force, injuring people suspected of misconduct and sometimes killing them. Stop and frisk is the practice by which a police officer initiates a cessation of an individual on the street allegedlyRead More Police Brutality: A Minority Group Concern Essay examples1926 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesRelations between the police and minority groups are a continuing problem in many multiracial societies. Surveys consistently document racial differences in perceptions of the police, with minorities more likely than whites to harbor negative views. (Weitzer and Tuch, Race and Perceptions of Police Misconduct, 2004) A great deal of society views law enforcement officers as heroic and honorable individuals, whose main purpose is to protect and serve the community. For many officers, thisRead MorePolice Brutality And The United States1608 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesPolice abuse remains as one of the most deliberate human rights violations in the United States. For over a decade police have acted in ways that makes us question their professionalism. Makes the wonder if law enforcement are taking advantage of their criminal justice Ã¢â¬Å"powersÃ¢â¬ October 22 is Ã¢â¬Å"National Day of Protest to Stop Police Brutality, Repression and Criminalization of an Entire GenerationÃ¢â¬ . (Aol News). On October 22 many people across the country wear black to fight back against police brutalityRead MoreThe Problem Of Police Brutality1509 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWith the current Spring Valley, South Carolina situation, this is perhaps a great time to address that police brutality does not, in any circumsta nce, exist. A few days ago, a video had surfaced the internet, showing a 15-year-old African American female being forcefully pulled out of a desk at school. After seeing this video, many concluded that the police officer was wrong for his actions, without listening to the facts first. As more videos arise, we begin to see the actual circumstances. In theRead MorePolice Brutality1263 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesÃ¯ » ¿Police Brutality Did you know that Police brutality is the intentional use of excessive force, usually physical, but potentially also in the form of verbal attacks and psychological intimidation, by a police officer? Despite major improvements in police practices (since 1981) reports of alleged police misconduct and abuse continue to spread through the nation. Police Brutality still goes on around the world today with improvements of enforcing police brutality in police departments. There have
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
Coach, Inc. About Coach, Inc Coach, Inc in New York, NY is the most recognized luxury American brand manufacturing womenÃ¢â¬â¢s handbags and purses. It was established as a family-run workshop in 1941 and incorporated in Maryland (Manta). The SIC Code is 3171, and the NAICS Code is 316992. Besides women s handbags and purses, it also produces women s accessories, travel bags, outwear, personal leather goods, apparels, belts, scarves, and menÃ¢â¬â¢s business cases, wallets, and purses. In 2010, Coach, Inc. employed approximately 13,000 people and had an estimated annual revenue of $3,230,468,000 (Coach, Inc. 10K, 2010). Although Coach does have menÃ¢â¬â¢s handbags and so many products, it mostly concentrates on womenÃ¢â¬â¢s handbags and purses.Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦and consumer demand. Fiscal Year Ended Net Sales (Dollars in millions) Percentage of Total Net Sales July 3,2010 June 27,2009 Rate of Change July 3,2010 June 27,2009 Direct-to-Consumer $3,155.8 $2,726.9 15.7% 87.5% 84.4% Indirect $451.8 $503.6 (10.3%) 12.5% 15.6% Total net Sales $3,607.6 $3,230.5 11.7% 100.0% 100.0% Table 1 Net Sales by Operating Segment Coach claims that net sales from the direct-to-consumer division in the North American market increased 16%, comparing to the 2009 fiscal year end (Coach 10K, Inc., 2010). Based on this data, 16% will be utilized to determine the sales value of handbags. In addition, the Chief Executive Officer (CEO), Lew Frankfort, said that the company decreased the overall prices of their products sold in retail stores by 10%~15% through 2010 (Made-for-outlet goods to diminish in Coach stores, 2009), and their factory stores priced products based on their retail stores. Therefore, we can use this rate to determine the change rate in handbag pricing sold in these two different stores to analyze the price elasticity. By using the above data, the formula for price elasticity is as follows: Ã¢Å¾ ¢ X= 2009 net sales in the direct-to-consumer division in North America. Ã¢Å¾ ¢ 1.16 X=2010 net sales in the direct-to-consumer division in North America. According to Figure X, estimating the net sale of handbags is as follows: Ã¢Å¾ ¢ 0.62 X= 2009 net sales ofShow MoreRelatedCoach, Inc. Marketing Plan Essay2731 Words Ã |Ã 11 PagesCoach Marketing Plan June 2010 Ã¢â¬â June 2012 BUS 620: Final Group Project March 8, 2010 *Executive Summary *- The focus of our 2 year marketing campaign is the building of the Coach line of handbags. The typical market focus of the handbag business for Coach is geared towards middle class women who have an interest in quality handbags and donÃ¢â¬â¢t who mind paying a little more for the quality and prestige of Coach products. While a Coach handbag is certainly a niche item, we feel thereRead MoreCoach Inc Handbags: Marketing Strategy Analysis1120 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesCoach, Inc. Handbags A marketing strategy is important for any product, and a big part of that strategy is the distribution elements and channels (Distribution, 2009; Marketing, 2011; Timberlake, 2012). Coach is very selective about how they distribute their products. They have authorized stores and outlet stores, as well as catalogs and a company website (Coach, 2012). They also allow some department stores to carry their products, as well as catalogues and specialty stores (Coach, 2012). A fewRead MoreMarketing Management Case Study - Coach Inc.1547 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesINTRODUCTION Coach, Inc. is a designer, producer, and marketer of a prestige line of handbags, briefcases, luggage, and accessories. The company made its reputation selling sturdy leather purses in unchanging, traditional, classic styles, and it remains one of the best-known leather brands in the United States and has a growing reputation overseas. In addition to its main product line, the company offers Coach brand watches, footwear, and home and office furniture through agreements with licensingRead MoreMarketing Strategies871 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesMarketing Strategies Marketing strategy is the plan of an organization to market its product. A good marketing strategy enables the organization to get the best marketing results and help it sustain its marketing advantage by using limited amount of resource. This report is the comparison of marketing strategies of three different companies. Lansing Aviation Lansing Aviation is a private company which provides aircrafts on rental to individuals and to flight training. It provides aviation consultancyRead MoreWhy Canada And South America Could Be Viable Places For Business1278 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagestargeted towards mixed gender locations. conclusion While Coach, Inc. has managed to capture a large amount of the market by pursuing a broad differentiation strategy and promoting the company as an accessible luxury brand, they still have some areas to improve upon. Appendix A Ã¢â¬â External Analysis A.1 PorterÃ¢â¬â¢s Five Forces Rivals: High: Very strong competitive forces, many options for a consumer to choose from. Suppliers: Low: Coach, Inc. has many supplier options to purchase the materials thatRead MoreExpansion, Brand And Competitive Scope1158 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesmain issues of Coach include expansion, brand dilution, and differentiation issues. The first issue is that Coach may have difficulty to entering into new markets such as Hong Kong, Macau, mainland China, Singapore, and Taiwan markets because it requires a huge capital to open retail stores and implement marketing plans. The second issue of Coach that is partnerships can be risky for luxury brands. If the paired up brands have lower level of quality and bad brand images, the Coach brand image mayRead MoreMarketing Strategy, Penetration Strategy1570 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesmore awareness its brand, products and services. Coach Ã¢â¬Å"1941 in Manhattan, New York, six leather artisans rely on exquisite craftsmanship, located in a loft where the family-style workshop to produce high-quality leather, COACH brand was born. COACH is also the United States by the market the longest and most successful leather brands.Ã¢â¬ (Allenlin, Oct 20, 2009 ) By the 1950s, COACH has launched dozens of classic style, the proportion of moderate Coach Handbag design. The quality and durability of theseRead MoreInternal Analysis Of Coach Has Built Its Business1706 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesInternal Analysis Coach has built its business based on their ability to minimize their cost while maximizing their customers perceived value. In order to minimize their cost, Coach found it most cost effective to outsource their manufacturing overseas. With such a far distance between their home location in the United States and their manufactured products, Coach implemented management controls near the locations of production. This helped ensure that production runs smoothly and that the qualityRead MoreBrand Positioning of Coach1050 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesBrand Positioning of COACH Positioning Statement For consumers of middle income levels who need both self purchases and gifts, COACH is an affordable and accessible luxury brand of accessories that offers classic, modern American styling products at extremely well made quality, excellent value and attractive prices. COACH successfully builds market share by leveraging its unique position as an accessible luxury lifestyle brand - a luxury brand even middle class can afford and a preferredRead MoreWhy Problem Solving Discussion Is The Best Essay1122 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pages observing as the strategy the coach just observe what the practitioner is doing, takes notes and later advise the practitioner on the area of improvement. The critics of this strategy in our marketing department is you can t allow the practitioner to go and do mistake outside with our clients. Therefore, this strategy is not applicable. Second, videotaping is another strategy the coaches use to train the practitioner. The disadvantage of this method is the coach can t follow the practitioner
Within World War I began a new age of warfare. As compared to previous engagements, the adoption of new weapons changed the way in World War I was fought. Not only did the concept of war change in terms of where battles were fought, how much revenue must be spent on the war and how much time a war could span; weapons changed. During the Indian Wars and War for independence, basic weapons were used. World War I began to become mobile. Use of planes, tanks and other technological advances had been implemented. The technological advances brought about were implemented within this war in an attempt to make the war last a shorter and to show prestige. Not only were mobile aerial and ground assets involved in war now, but other technologyÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦According to Wolff (1958), the introduction of small arms with rapid-fire capabilities and artillery lead to armies digging miles and miles of trenches with fronted with barbed wire to adapt. Trench warfare changed th e nature in which the war could be fought because this defensive position, that often limited movement, was utilized throughout the French and German borders. Trenches hindered any flanking movement and limited armies from fighting opposing armies how they were used to. Therefore, instead of making any bold flanking movements, soldiers had to utilize trenches to make frontal attacks. During such movements, soldiers were often killed in mass numbers because there was no cover or concealment from the friendly trench to the opposing armyÃ¢â¬â¢s trench. Often soldiers were victim to machine gun fire or artillery. With this change in warfare, adaptation was necessary. (Wolff, 1958) It was obvious that previous war tactics were now obsolete with the increased use of the machine gun. In order to bypass the dangers of conducting a frontal attack of the enemy against the threat of machine guns, new weapons were created and tested. Colonel Ernest Swinton of the British army laid down critical specifications that had to be part of the end product. This creation was a tracked vehicle that was large and trapezoid shaped. This tracked vehicleÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to cross over trenches and other uneven terrain, climb high obstacles, resist small arms fire and permit aShow MoreRelatedWorld War Ii Weapon Advances Essay example1399 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Advances of Weaponry During World War II In every war fought throughout the history of mankind, the dependence on weapons was highly sought after. From swords to guns, weaponry has progressed throughout the ages with each war fought. No other war has seen more advances in weaponry than World War II. Many of those advances made this war focused on artillery, land vehicles, naval ships and aircraft. These advances, although beneficial, have also led to more bloodshed on the battlefield becauseRead MoreOn the Evolution of War802 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesEvolution of War World War II was the first Ã¢â¬Å"high-techÃ¢â¬ war. While there had been new technologies in World War I, they did not have the lasting impact on modern society like World War II innovations. During the Second World War, countries poured all of their resources into developmental and operations research. Scientists invented technologies for practical and immediate purposes instead of conducting experiments to more deeply understand the natural world. The World War II weapons race for advancedRead MoreThe War Of The French Revolution1676 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesthe military history lessons to abstract the aspects of war, which enhance our leadership and capabilities to take the right decision. Therefore, I am going to start with war definition. Ã¢â¬Å"War is an act of force to compel our enemy to do our WillÃ¢â¬ . During the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth centuries, a series of conflicts dominated Europe. These conflicts had its influence on the Europe at that tim e, but the Napoleonic wars had the most lasting impact on western warfare. The explosionRead MoreInfluences of Civil War Technology 1432 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWar is something that everyone knows about. it is very prominent and chances are throughout the history of the world there is always someone effected by it during any point in time. Wars come and go leaving many good and bad things behind, whichever light it is looked at from, weaponry is always one of those things. War time is notorious for pushing technology to the edge, this including weaponry. 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Questions: 1. A comparison of the similarities between these five different computer criminal behaviors and typologies? 2. A comparison of the differences found between these five different computer criminal behaviors and typologies? 3. An analysis of how organizations can benefit from understanding each of these different computer criminal behaviors and typologies? Answers: Introduction Computer crimes refers to the extensive use of the information technology for illegal purposes or for unauthorized access of the computer system where the intent is to damage, delete or alter the data present in the computers. Even identity thefts, misusing devices or electronic frauds are considered as computer crimes. Additionally, there are other crimes such as cyber crimes, credit card account theft, internet fraud and telemarketing frauds. There are five major cyber crimes which are to be taken care of or which can affect someones personal life and are as follows:- Cyber stalking Identity theft Computer virus Phishing Hacking Cyber stalking Cyber stalking can simply be termed as online stalking. Data destruction, monitoring, exploitation of minor all comes under cyber stalking. Instant messages, emails, phone calls and other communication devices are used by the cyber stalkers to harass the people and annoying attention to their life and family activities. Stalking can be simply understood as following somebody with the intent to harass them and which is unwanted, often abusive and usually illegal. This cyberstalker may be anybody a former friend, an ex or someone who just want to bother you. Cyber stalking can harm in may ways like: damage of career, confidence, credits and friendship etc.. Moreover, it is observed that the cyberstalking victims are also the victims of domestic violence. The enhancements in technologies are making life easier day by day, but on the contrary, it is giving unmatchable power and information to the cyberstalkers to harass people. Recently, a girl in Washington was sentenced to death for a cyber stalking incident in which she and her friend treated her classmates account with solicitation for sex and explicit photos. Identity thefts It refers to all the crimes in which somebody obtains personal data through wrong means and particularly for economic gain. All the passwords personal data such as credit card number or bank account number, social security number, telephone calling card number, and various identity data can be used by the culprits to personally profit on someone other expenses. Only the fingerprint which is unique and cannot be identical to other is safer. In some cases, the fingerprints are also used in recent years, but this is a rare case. These personal data should be kept very safely, such that they dont fall into the wrong hands, because then it become vulnerable to theft. Many cases of unauthorized person taking their funds out of victims bank account and in some rare cases it had happened that the complete identity of a personnel have been used such that the victim indulges in vast debts and committed crimes in the name of the victim. This causes a great problem for the victims for which the criminal was responsible. One example of medical fraud happened in the US. Gerald Barnes stole the identity of Gerald Barnbaum after losing his own pharmacist license after committing medical fraud. A diabetic patient died under his care after that he also worked as a physician for FBI agents. Now he is behind the bar and serving hard time. Computer Virus Generating a computer virus, malware or trojan is not a crime, but if this is to be spread to other computers for any illegal purposes, then it will be treated as a crime and the person will be liable for any infection or damage caused to others computer. In 2009, a girl from Manila in Philippines texted an email to his boyfriend which was a love letter. This email replicated itself to everyones outlook account and then destroyed all the local files. Due to this email many organizations had to shut down, losing all their organizational data. Later, the computer users were literally feared to let love in their lives. Phishing This is email fraud method in which the perpetrator sends emails which look legitimate in the first look and it asks for personal and financial information from people. Generally, the name taken in email appears to be trustworthy and well known such that everyone gets attracted to it. Yahoo, MSN, America online, PayPal and Ebay are the names taken by the frauds and itself gives lure hope of transferring a great amount of money into ones account. Recently, In India emails for different mail holders was sent from the name of RBI stating that the person has an undisputed amount of more than 4 crores INR with the RBI. And, this will be delivered to the account after giving the bank account details. Hacking The hacking of computers has been started only after the intervention of the internet era. Hacking means the usage of others system illegally or without permission. It is a major crime if the security system of any country or the governmental database is hacked. Sometimes an organization system is hacked for the purpose of fraud. 1. Similarities' between Computer crimes There are various similarities between computer crimes, but the major one is that all the computer crimes take place only because of our mistakes. One should be very careful towards these computer crimes and try to avoid all the circumstances leading to these situations. Every computer crime leads to the loss of the victims by great means and in some case loss of life may also take place. 2. Differences between Computer crimes A Large difference exists in the investigative process and these are revealed by the definition extinctions. Traditional crimes are generally concerned with the person or property offenses that law enforcement has continued to struggle. Whereas non traditional crimes involves a computer for the current work and to encompass that. Non- traditional crimes have not received much attention as compared to the traditional crimes. They do not cause the same instinctive and emotionally-charged reaction, whereas conventional crimes do the same. It is very difficult to observe and detect the cyber crime. The relative privacy is compounded by these problems by the Internet an the transcendence of geographical and physical limitations of cyberspace. 3. How the organizations can be benefited by understanding these issues These issues should be known to the organizations or the pupils whose life is surrounded by computers. Having complete knowledge of the computer crimes the organization will keep their confidential data safer and not easily accessible. Cyberspace security can be increased, more options for saving data is available. The frauds, hacking issues losses can be eradicated, which will help in the success of an organization. References Rosoff, S. M., Pontell, H. M., Tillman, R. (2002). Profit without honor: white-collar crime and the looting of America. Upper Saddle River, NJ:Prentice Hall. Royal Canadian Mounted Police. (2000). Computer crime, can it affect you? Retrieved September 07 2015, from https://www3.sk.sympatico.ca/rcmpccs/cpu-crim.html Russell-Einhorn, M. L. (2004). Federal-Local Law Enforcement Collaboration inInvestigating and Prosecuting Urban Crime, 1982-1999: Drugs, Weapons, andGangs (No. NCJ 201782): National Institute of Justice.Sanders, W. (1977). Detective work. New York: Free Press.Schwartau, W. (1999). Cyber-vigilantes hunt down hackers. September 7 2015, from https://www.cnn.com/TECH/computing/9901/12/cybervigilantes.idg Silke, A. (2001). Dealing with vigilantism: Issues and lessons for the police.Police Journal, 74(2), 120-133. Skogan, W. G., Antunes, G. E. (1979). Information, apprehension, and deterrence: Exploring the limits of police productivity. Journal of CriminalJustice, 7, 217-241.Tarde, G. (Ed.). ( 1903). Gabriel Tarde's laws of imitation. New York:Henry Holt.United Nations. (1994). International Review of Criminal Policy - United Lu, Y., Polgar, M., Luo, X., Cao, Y. (2010, Winter). Social network analysis of a criminal hacker community. Wada, F., Longe, O., Danquah, P. (2012, April). Action speaks louder than words understanding cyber criminal behavior using criminological theories. Willison, R., Warkentin, M. (2013, March). Beyond the deterrence: An expanded view of employee computer abuse.